Superresolution microscopy (SM) techniques are among the revolutionary methods for molecular and cellular observations in the 21st century. SM techniques overcome optical limitations, and several new observations using SM lead us to expect these techniques to have a large impact on neuroscience in the near future. Several types of SM have been developed, including structured illumination microscopy (SIM), stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED), and photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM)/stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), each with special features. In this Minisymposium, experts in these different types of SM discuss the new structural and functional information about specific important molecules in neuroscience that has been gained with SM. Using these techniques, we have revealed novel mechanisms of endocytosis in nerve growth, fusion pore dynamics, and described quantitative new properties of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Additional powerful techniques, including single molecule-guided Bayesian localization SM (SIMBA) and expansion microscopy (ExM), alone or combined with super-resolution observation, are also introduced in this session.